International Organization For Migration (IOM)

Consultant (Comprehensive Mapping of Reintegration Measures in South Asian Colombo Process Member States)

International Organization For Migration (IOM)

Job Description

Terms of Reference Services Title : Consultant Comprehensive Mapping of Reintegration Measures in South Asian Colombo Process Member States (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) Duty Station : Home-based Classification : Consultancy Type of Appointment : Consultancy Contract Desired Start Date : As soon as possible Closing Date: 12 February 2021 Reference Code : Established in 1951, IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is seeking proposals from a qualified consultant or a team of consultants to conduct a mapping of existing reintegration measures supporting international labour migrants from South Asian countries returning to their countries of origin. The mapping will assess labour market integration, and the gendered economic, social and psychosocial reintegration measures including vulnerability factors affecting reintegration in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka.


1.1 Overall Context ILO estimates[1] that there are 164 million migrant workers in the world. Within this global figure, the majority of the close to 23 million migrant workers in the Arab States sub-region come from South and South-East Asia, comprising over 19 million men and close to 4 million women migrant workers. Within the Asia region, there are other key migration corridors, including to and within the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and to East Asian economies.

Labour migration from South and South-East Asia occurs primarily under temporary migration regimes particularly for lower- and semi-skilled workers.

1.2 The Colombo Process The Regional Consultative Process on Overseas Employment and Contractual Labour for Countries of Origin in Asia (“the Colombo Process)” was established in 2003 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The Colombo Process provides a member-state driven, non-binding platform for countries of origin in Asia to facilitate dialogue and cooperation on issues of common interest and concern relating to the management of overseas employment and contractual labour. Its shared goal is to optimize the benefits of organized labour migration while protecting their migrant workers throughout the migration cycle. Currently, the Colombo Process has twelve Member States: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam.

The Colombo Process has evolved around five thematic foci; (1) fostering ethical recruitment practices, (2) pre-departure orientation and empowerment, (3) skills and qualifications recognition processes, (4) promote cheaper, faster and safer transfer of remittances, and (5) labour market analysis. Colombo Process Member States have established Thematic Area Working Groups (TAWGs)on these thematic areas, each of which is chaired by a Member State.

1.3 The impact of Covid-19 The COVID-19 crisis is having an unprecedented impact on global economies, businesses and workers. ILO estimates that nearly 2.2 billion workers, representing 68 per cent of the global workforce, are living in countries with recommended or required workplace closures. This crisis has impacted migrant workers in the Asia region in many ways. As migrants, they are impacted by border closures and access to health and social services that are limited by their migration status; as workers, they are impacted by economic shocks and loss of work; and as returnees to low income households, they are particularly vulnerable to the unmitigated economic shock of loss of livelihood and paying for adequate healthcare and medication. The numbers who are losing jobs and seeking to return home across South Asia, are significant. By way of an example, as at the beginning of April 2020, there were an estimated half a million migrant workers returning to Bangladesh. Intermittent border closures between India and Nepal saw large numbers of migrants crowding at border crossings. Some countries in the Gulf States established amnesties for irregular workers, to allow them to return home without penalty.

1.4 Reintegration of returning migrants Reintegration in general is understood as the re-inclusion or re-incorporation of a person into a group or a process, e.g. of a migrant into the society of his or her country of origin or habitual residence[2]. Reintegration is a multidimensional process that requires the re-establishment of economic, social and psychosocial ties back into a migrant’s country of origin or habitual residence. As such, successful reintegration depends on various factors such as the migrant worker’s occupation and time spent abroad as well as his/her gender, ethnic background, personal abilities and resources; the acceptance by his/her family, peers, and community; but also, on environmental and structural capacities as well as development and economic opportunities available in the country of origin.

While some migrant workers return to welcoming contexts and reintegrate in a smooth manner, many often face challenges reintegrating into their home communities and labour markets. In many cases, migrant workers are found to face both social and economic challenges after returning to their home country. Under these circumstances and pre-COVID, they often end up re-migrate for employment.

This situation may happen because they do not have entrepreneurship skills, could not manage the finances they earned overseas or arrived home without savings, or they were unable to translate the skills and qualifications gained overseas into the labour market in their home countries. Gaps in reintegration policies at national and sub national levels and the absence of support services and training opportunities can also hinder reintegration. Some returned migrant workers are also not able to invest any initial capital from their own savings to start enterprises of their own as many returns with crippling debts owed to informal lenders, with loans often having been secured by using personal assets such as agricultural land as collateral.

Structural factors such as cooperation between various government departments at the local and national level, returnee-oriented policies and legal instruments, but also level of support from the private sector, migration focused CBOs and the diaspora, and access to employment and basic services (e.g., housing, education, health, psychosocial referrals), all greatly impact a returnee’s ability to reintegrate successfully.

The COVID-19 pandemic is deeply affecting the well-being of people all over the world, including migrants, Asylum Seekers, refugees and internally displaced persons. They disproportionally experience the impacts of the pandemic due to their weakened social support structures, bleak socio-economic prospects, unequal access to health care and social services, precarious housing, tenuous living and working conditions, vulnerability to misinformation and xenophobia, and risks of exploitation and abuse. As governments adopted measures to curb the spread of the disease, many migrants have found themselves jobless overnight, quarantined, stranded during their journeys, separated from their families and unable to return home, and trapped in dormitories or camps where adequate physical distancing is impossible. All of this has created and continues to fuel feelings of uncertainty, distress, fear, anger and hopelessness. [3] Therefore, the implementation of reintegration programmes for returnee migrant workers should aim to ensure that migrant workers are able to secure their social and economic conditions in their home country not only for themselves but also their families.

2.PROGRAMME CONTEXT** 2.1 Programme objectives The “*Governance of Labour Migration in South and South-East Asia (GOALS)*” is a regional UN joint programme being implemented by IOM, ILO and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women). Supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the overall programme objective is that labour migration is safe, orderly and regular for all women and men from Colombo Process Member States through strengthened collaboration and effective migration governance. GOALS will run from August 2020 to July 2023[4].

The GOALS programme is aligned with the overall goal of SDC’s Regional programme, “Decent Work for Migrant Workers from South Asia[5]: Enhancing the productive potential of labour migration and the well- being of migrant workers and their families through improved labour migration processes, labour market regulations and access to targeted services for migrants, thus increasing the contribution of migration to sustainable development.” The programme is conceived in response to various facets of labour migration in the corridors between South and South-East Asia and the Middle East and builds on the first phase of the SDC supported regional project, “Strengthening Labour Migration Governance through Regional Cooperation in Colombo Process Countries”. The participating UN organizations (PUNOs), IOM, ILO and UN Women come together while partnering with other relevant stakeholders, including migrant workers and their representatives, Civil Society Organizations, private sector including employers’ organizations, trade unions, recruitment agencies, and academia and policy think tanks to support the implementation of this regional project.

The GOALS programme responds to the current context, achievements, gaps and challenges relating to safe, orderly and regular labour migration from the South and South-East Asia countries of the Colombo Process. It envisions a three-year strategic and comprehensive focus for positive change, increased social and economic benefits for women and men migrant workers, their families and the countries of origin. Working with the Colombo Process Member States, guided by the Colombo Process TAWGs, the programme conceptualizes the links between countries of origin and destination countries and strives to strengthen governance from policy to practice, regional to national, and vice versa.

The programme is built on three inter-linked and inter-related outcomes; · Outcome one: Colombo Process Member States develop and progress actionable commitments for strengthened labour migration governance and policy coherence through multilateral dialogue; · Outcome two: Selected Colombo Process Members states in South Asia have improved labour migration policies and practices, on skills development and qualifications recognition, fostering fair and ethical recruitment, and sustainable reintegration; · Outcome three: The evidence base on labour migration is strengthened to inform knowledge, dialogue, policy making and action.

2.2 Overall programme approach The programme incorporates the selected key thematic priorities of the Colombo Process placing specific focus on improved skills recognition, fair and ethical recruitment and sustainable reintegration. The programme will ensure that all interventions identify and address the barriers facing gender equitable labour migration not only at the regional level through the Colombo Process, but also for the improvement of overall governance of labour migration at the South Asia sub-regional level and the national level. The programme will promote equality for women migrant workers using a cross-cutting, gender mainstreaming approach, in line with the Kathmandu Declaration’s commitment to mainstream a gender lens into all working group discussions in order to address the specific needs and vulnerabilities of women migrant workers, and promote equal opportunities for them.

In supporting Colombo Process Member States to convert priorities into national level action, the programme will take a corridor approach to the development and adaptation of thematic interventions. Such interventions will be developed through multi-stakeholder dialogue and consensus at the regional level, and then piloted through a corridor approach at the national level. This will mean that interventions related to recruitment, skills development and sustainable reintegration will focus on migration through South Asia and the Middle East migration corridor. This approach maximizes the ability to assess the effectiveness of the intervention.

At the regional and national level, the programme will take a multi-stakeholder approach to both ensure that policy development is evidence-based, relevant and based on informed dialogue; but also recognizing that engagement of multiple stakeholders increases ownership and accountability. The programme will encourage and support leadership from national partners and integrate the work of the programme into the national and regional policy agendas.

Keeping in mind the non-binding nature of the Colombo Process, GOALS will support member states to identify and make actionable commitments at the regional level. In line with the programme’s thematic and geographic focus, GOALS will then support the translation of these commitments into national action. The approach to this will be by using regional dialogues and symposiums to progress Colombo Process priorities into intervention models for each of the thematic areas of skills development and qualifications recognition, recruitment, and reintegration. These models will then be adapted in specific countries at the national level, for piloting where relevant. In the event where this is not possible as a result of the scope and budget of this project, it will link to the existing projects of PUNOs at the national level.

The programme will use both the regional to national, and the corridor approaches to this work, where relevant, which will focus on three thematic areas – skills development and qualifications recognition; fostering fair and ethical recruitment; and sustainable reintegration.

Outcome two of the programme envisages that:

“Selected member states in South Asia have improved labour migration policies and practices, in particular on skills development and qualifications recognition, fostering fair and ethical recruitment, and sustainable reintegration.” Under this outcome, the programme will support the adoption of Colombo Process Member States’ commitments into policy and practice on reintegration, that maximizes the benefits of migrant work and ensures that women and men migrant workers and their families sustain the social, psychosocial and economic benefits of effectively governed labour migration processes.

2.3 Reintegration and the GOALS programme This consultancy will directly support the Output 2.3 of the programme: Regional frameworks and guidelines on reintegration are developed and adapted for operationalization at the national level”.** Output 2.3 will support Sustainable Reintegration which will be addressed through a holistic approach that begins at the pre departure stage and culminates post reintegration, including (re)migration as a matter of choice, which enables States to focus on sustainable reintegration of returning migrant workers. The approach to reintegration will include the reintegration of migrants from a labour perspective, but also place high priority on interventions that meet the needs of returning migrants in terms of social, economic and psychological needs. This approach will consider the objectives and commitments of the TAWGs, especially the TAWG on Skills and Qualification Recognition Processes. Reintegration component of GOALS programme will utilize, among others, existing tools such as IOM’s Reintegration Sustainability Survey[6] and Scoring System to monitor sustainable reintegration of returning migrant workers across the economic, social and psychosocial dimensions and other relevant tools and guidance developed by the PUNOs. Taking a gender-responsive approach to this work, the programme will take into account the gendered division of labour, occupations and skills sets in the labour market and in the home as well as address any detrimental impact of violence and stigma women may have experienced during migration and on their return.

Under output 2.3 the programme will map reintegration measures and identify good practices, both in terms of labour market integration, and in the gendered economic, social and psychosocial reintegration environment. The mapping will include identifying vulnerability factors affecting reintegration, with a special focus on reintegration measures targeting labour migrants. The mapping will consider existing reintegration measures designed, developed and implemented by State as well as non-State entities, and assess their effectiveness. This comprehensive regional mapping will inform tools and guidance for Colombo Process Member States, in the form of a Capacity Building tool for local authorities on facilitating labour market integration of returning migrant workers.

Based on the findings of the mapping on existing gendered economic, social and psychological reintegration measures and their effectiveness, a model on reintegration will be developed for South Asia that provides sustainable and integrated solutions to address gendered social, psychosocial and economic opportunities and challenges for returning migrant workers. The model will also be informed by knowledge and good practices from the region and globally on the benefit of referral networks, peer mentoring, and soft skills training, and the role of CSOs as well as women’s organizations and collectives.

The model will build on IOM’s Prottasha[7]: Bangladesh Sustainable Reintegration. The model on reintegration will be developed in line with national policies and frameworks in South Asia such as the Sub-Policy and National Action Plan on Return and Reintegration of Sri Lanka[8] developed through the ILO-implemented national project, “Promoting decent work through good governance, protection and empowerment of migrant workers: Ensuring the effective implementation of the Sri Lanka National Labour Migration Policy”.

When developing the model on reintegration, the programme will utilize existing institutional knowledge and information of the PUNOs including but not limited to IOM’s Reintegration Handbook which provides practical guidance on the design, implementation and monitoring of reintegration assistance, and the reintegration monitoring tools including IOM’s Reintegration Sustainability Survey, and ILO’s tools and programmes like “Start and improve your business”[9] and “Women entrepreneurship development”[10]. The model will be proposed and further developed at a regional symposium and then pilot tested in two Colombo Process Member States in South Asia.


3.1 Overview of the mapping and assessment exercise

The aim of this research is to comprehensively map and assess the effectiveness of reintegration measures for returning labour migrants at national level in the following South Asian Colombo Process member states: Afghanistan Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The results of the mapping and assessment should be documented and presented to the GOALS programme team. Once finalized, the report will be released publicly and shared directly with the relevant stakeholders.** The consultancy should use the key IOM approach to reintegration, namely “An Integrated Approach to Reintegration and the Handbook on Reintegration”, to structure the research and report -considering each country’s level of reintegration support against the economic, social and psychosocial dimensions of reintegration.

Mapping and assessment should consider the individual, community-based and structural levels. . These include political, institutional, economic, and social conditions at the local, national, and international level.

The research will:

· Map the availability of social, psychosocial and economic reintegration support mechanisms for returnees in achieving sustainable reintegration across the five countries · Assess the gendered economic, social, psychosocial factors supporting sustainable reintegration (Refer IOM document: An Integrated Approach to Reintegration[11]) · Consider provisions across the following levels: o Individual reintegration support targeting the specific needs of returning migrants and households, including in kind and cash-based assistance, vocational training and skills development, access to Banking and micro finance Business Development support o Community based reintegration support o Structural factors · For each level (individual, community and structural), the mapping should assess the availability and effectiveness of support across the economic, social and psychosocial dimensions.

· Cover national level and sub national level provision as well as the support provided by government, civil society, international organisations and private sector providers.

· Consider the available support and interventions being provided by International organisations and UN agencies in the field of reintegration · Special attention should be paid to cross cutting gender implications affecting reintegration · The presentation of the results of the mapping should follow a uniform format (to be agreed upon at the stage of the Inception Report) for each of the five countries and include a summary of the findings for each country in a tabular format · Make recommendations, which includes addressing gaps in reintegration support for each of the five countries The mapping study will subsequently inform the development of a model on reintegration and of capacity building tools and will inform the subsequent selection of countries for potential pilot reintegration activities.

3.2 Mapping implementation The mapping and the subsequent production of the report will be provided by the consultant/consultancy provider who will be responsible for conducting all the required research, for writing up and presenting findings and the development of final reports and recommendations.

This consultancy will be home based and will not require field research of travel to any of the target countries. The consultant/consultancy provider should be available for virtual meetings with key informants and the programme team at timings corresponding to the working day for South Asia.

3.3 Deliverables of the consultant/research team · Inception Report detailing the methodological approach to be used in the mapping and assessment exercise which should be shared as a draft and finalised with IOM. This should include a work plan, draft questionnaires, timeline for the mapping study and structure and format of the final report (upon initial discussion with IOM).

· Literature and desk review, including the review of existing data, policies, projects, laws and policies in each of the target countries using such as publicly available information from the Colombo Process Member States, and existing relevant research, studies and publications.

· Propose research and data gathering tools for the mapping and assessment. These shall be finalised with IOM.

· Propose criteria, a composite index and/or rating for the assessment and finalise with IOM. .

  • Comprehensively map and assess existing reintegration measures and support for returning migrants designed, developed and implemented by state as well as non-state entities.
· Gather data from stakeholders through survey questionnaires and online/ phone interviews; · Compile and analyse all quantitative and qualitative data
  • Include gender considerations in data collection and analysis
· Provide a power point presentation with an analysis of preliminary findings and recommendations · Develop a draft report, taking into account feedback from the programme team. The report should include, o Country reintegration profiles for each country: a narrative of the mapping and the detailed assessment.

o Overview of the mapping and assessment, which provides an overall summary of the 5 countries (for example in tabular form or a matrix).

o A summary for each country in infographics.

· Revise the draft reports, reflecting all the comments/input provided by the GOALS programme team and other stakeholders at different stages**,** and prepare a final draft of the mapping report.

· Preparation, editing and design of the final report should be in line with IOM style and publication guidelines · The final report is expected to be no more than 50 pages and, in addition to what is mentioned under the draft report, should contain at least the following, o Executive summary o Background and situational analysis o Methodology and Tools o Team and specific roles o Mapping and Assessment (deliverables mentioned under draft report above) o Conclusions and Recommendations · All plans, presentations and reports should be in English.


Assignment shall be completed within 3 calendar months.

Timeline (*Day, from start of the consultancy

Expected output

5th day Submission of the Inception Report containing, methodology with workplan and timeframe, draft questionnaires and timeline 9th day Provide feedback on the methodology 27th day Submit the desk review 30th day IOM to provide feedback on the desk review 60th day Conduct research 61st day Prepare a power point presentation with an analysis of preliminary findings and recommendations 63rd day Present preliminary findings at a validation meeting with the programme team 68th day Develop and submit a draft report with analysis of findings and draft recommendations taking into account feedback from the validation meeting 72nd day IOM to provide feedback on the first draft report 75th day Submission of second draft with all comments addressed 80th day IOM to provide feedback on the second draft report 83rd day Revise and submit the final report; editing and design 5. QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERTISE REQUIRED

The Consultant/research team must have the following qualifications and expertise: · Postgraduate degrees in Public Policy, Social Sciences, Economics, Migration Studies, Law or a related field from an accredited academic institution with at least 5 years of experience in a relevant field · Or university degrees in the abovementioned fields with 8-10 years of relevant working experience mentioned above · Demonstrated experience in producing high quality research products in migration, reintegration and labour migration or another relevant field including a proven record of primary research in countries of origin · Experience in assessing regulatory frameworks whether government or those of private social audits is advantageous · Experience working in the South Asia region is an advantage; · Previous experience working with one or more UN agencies is an advantage · Excellent writing, communication and skills, gender and cultural sensitivity · Fluency in English is required; 8. COMPETENCIES REQUIRED

The Consultant/research team shall have the following competencies: Ability to carry out research independently based on a robust methodology.

Ability to deliver quality products consistently throughout the consultancy contract period.

Demonstrated ability to analyse complex issues by considering the situations of multiple countries, synthesize the analyses and reflecting feedback from multiple stakeholders.

Excellent command of English both orally and in writing.

Excellent organizational skills and punctuality of the submission of the deliverables.

Excellent Coordination and communication skills and readiness to keep clients updated and consulted on the progress and challenges encountered.

Demonstrated ability to effectively interface with stakeholders including government officials, to collate information.

Flexible to accommodate certain changes to the timeline and methodology and responsive to changes as part of the review and feedback process.


The payment will be made in the following instalments: · 10% percent payment upon the submission of the Inception Report.

· 20% upon submission and validation of the desk review and methodology.

· 40% upon submission of the first draft report.

· 30% upon submission and acceptance of the final report**.** [1] Department of Statistics, International Labour Organization, ILO Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers, Second edition (2017). Available from [2] Towards an Integrated Approach to Reintegration, IOM [3] [4] News | Sri Lanka ( [5] [6] IOM Publishes Report on Reintegration Outcomes | International Organization for Migration [7] Prottasha Project, [8] Sub- Policy and National Action Plan on Return and Reintegration of Migrant Workers Sri Lanka, [9] ILO, Start and Improve your Business Programme, [10] ILO, Women’s Entrepreneurship Development (WED) Programme [11]
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